Gemelli is a medical term which means multiple pregnancies. In Gemelli pregnancy, a mother has more than one fetus in her womb. Not only two but can also be three, even four fetuses or more during a period of pregnancy. Twins are two or more individuals who share the same uterus but are not always born on the same day. Twins are two or more children born from the same pregnancy period.
In Gemelli pregnancy or twins usually, the size of the stomach of the mother is larger than a single pregnancy. Gemelli pregnancy is divided into two types, identical and non-identical twins. Identical twins occur when one ovum is fertilized by one sperm cell but then forms two embryos. Whereas non-identical twins occur when two eggs are fertilized by two sperm cells at the same time, thus developing into two different fetuses.
The uniquely of twin pregnancy
Each twin pregnancy is unique because it doesn’t always come from one ovum. The sex of the babies can be the same, it can also be different. In general, twin pregnancies can be divided into two types, based on the number of the ovum that become the embryo (future fetus). First, twins from one egg, are called monozygotic. Second, twins from two or more eggs, are called dizygotic. The total number of twins in the world is about 8%, monozygotic twins.
Monozygotic (identical twins) is the process of twin pregnancies, fertilized ovum by a sperm cell (zygote) divides itself into two halves. After attaching to the uterine wall, the two hemispheres develop independently into a perfect fetus. This type of twin is also called an identical twin. The possibility of identical twins is one in 150 births. Identical twins occur due to natural factors (not hereditary factors). About 75% of identical twin pregnancies, only have one placenta with one amniotic membrane or one placenta with two membranes.
It has several unique characteristics. They are:
- Sometimes it has the same sex, sometimes has the different sex
- They usually have the same face and appearance, often having very similar personalities to each other.
- Identical twins are noted to have a longer life than fraternal twins. Identical twins can be up to more than 100 years old
Whereas Dizygotic (non-identical twins) is a process of occurrence that is one or more ovum cells fertilized by two different sperm cells. Each result of fertilization (zygote) develops into a perfect fetus. These types of twins are called fraternal twins or two-egg twins. The possibility of fraternal twins is 1 in 60 births. Fraternal twins are inherited genetic traits.
How to get twins?
No one knows exactly why pregnancy can produce twins, especially for identical twins. All pregnant women have the same opportunity to get identical twins. There may be 1 identical twin pregnancy from 350 to 400 pregnancies. Usually, identical twins are not inherited in the family, nor are they influenced by other things such as age, ethnicity, or age.
Several factors that can influence the occurrence of non-identical twins, including:
- Ethnicity: non-identical twins are usually more common in certain ethnic groups. The occurrence of non-identical twins is most experienced by ethnic Africans. In parts of western Europe, twin pregnancies occur in 1 in every 60 pregnancies, while in Nigeria twin pregnancies occur in 1 in 20-30 pregnancies. But even so, Nigerians who live outside the country then experience a reduced of giving birth to twins, so the high chance of having twins in ethnic Africans is suspected of being caused more by dietary and environmental factors.
- Age. Even though giving birth at old age has its risks, it turns out that if you are pregnant above the age of 35, you have a greater chance of getting twins. This is because if pregnant women are older, they tend to release more than one egg during ovulation.
- Heredity. Non-identical twins can be derived from the mother’s side. Twins are not identical due to the presence of two ovum, a woman’s ability to produce more than one egg at ovulation tends to be lowered to women. So if the prospective mother has a mother or grandmother who is also a twin not identical, then the possibility of producing twins is also greater.
- The number of children before. Even though it cannot be proven scientifically, but if you have had several children, then the chances of getting twins are also greater. This is because the reproductive system works well and there are no problems with ovulation, so the possibility of producing more than one egg at ovulation becomes larger. Or, if you have previously given birth to twins, then it is not impossible that your next pregnancy will be twins.
- IVF (in vitro fertilization), often also called the IVF method, is a technique used to help diagnose the state of infertile or have problems with the reproductive system. When undergoing an IVF procedure, the ovum cell will be taken from the ovary and fertilized by sperm, this whole process is carried out in the laboratory. After that, the fertilized egg, or an embryo, will be implanted back into the uterus and then allowed to grow and develop like a fetus in general.
Recognize the indications of pregnant twins
In general, the characteristics of twins can be known since the first trimester. The following are common signs of pregnancy for twins, including:
- High levels of hCG
The first sign of pregnancy for twins is increasing levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This examination is usually done when entering the beginning of pregnancy. High levels of hCG from pregnancy in general, usually indicate that you are pregnant with twins. However, high levels of hCG can also be produced on mothers who use fertilizers. This high level of hCG can make morning sickness more severe than a single pregnancy.
- Excessive nausea and vomiting
The next sign of pregnancy for twins is excessive nausea and vomiting. It is recommended that you check the condition of nausea and vomiting at the obstetrician. It is also useful to check if you have hyperemesis gravidarum. Excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are more severe than morning sickness.
- Weight is easier to ride
Twin pregnancy will increase body weight faster in the first trimester. The difference in weight between pregnant twins with a normal pregnancy is about 4.5 kg at the same gestational age. Besides, signs of pregnancy twins can also be seen from the size of the stomach. Twin pregnant women tend to look bigger than the belly of a single pregnant woman.
- Physical exhaustion
It is another sign of pregnancy for twins that can be experienced. Pregnant women will feel fatigued greater than before. In addition to fatigue, generally, back pain will also be felt earlier since the carried burden becomes heavier. This fatigue can also be caused the body needs more energy to fulfill the nutrients for two fetuses.
- Intolerance with certain foods
Signs of pregnancy for other twins is that pregnant women will experience great intolerance to some food. The aroma and texture of food can be a barrier to twin pregnant women in eating food. In some cases, pregnant women get the experience a very sensitive sense of smell. While women with a twin pregnancy are often accompanied by very severe conditions. Some foods that must be avoided are foods with a pungent aroma, such as seafood.
- Often experience spots that come out of the vagina
During the first trimester, signs of pregnancy for twins that can be identified are experiencing spots. As long as the spots are not accompanied by cramps or a lot of bleeding. Mother is common for experiencing this case and there is nothing to worry about. This condition will often be experienced when pregnant with twins.