Child growth is indeed interesting to observe. Sometimes the child can outperform the growth of his age, but there is a delay on the other side. The physical development of each baby is different. There are children with fast-growing (normally), but on the other hand, there are those who experience a slight delay. Mothers still need to be aware of the signs of the baby’ s development. Mothers also need to trust their instincts to see something strange or not with their growth and development.
In most cases, parents do not realize when their baby has a developmental delay. The development of each child has its uniqueness. The speed of achievement of each child’s development is different. The time range for achieving each stage of development is generally quite large. For example, a child is said to be normal if he can walk from the age of 10 to 18 months, so there are often differences in development between children his age. For this reason, parents need to know the indication of a child’s development.
A child can experience developmental delays only on one side of development or can be on more than one side of development. Delay in general development or global developmental delay is a state of significant developmental delay in two or more areas of development. Generally, the realm of child development consists of rough motoric, fine motoric, language/speech, and personal social / independence. Approximately 5 to 10% of children are estimated to experience developmental delays. Data on the case of general developmental delays are not known with certainty, but it is estimated that around 1-3% of children under the age of 5 experience general developmental delays.
The term general developmental delay can be used for children under 5 years of age, while mental retardation is generally used for older children. IQ tests can provide more accurate results and better reliability. Children with general developmental disorders do not always experience mental retardation in the future.
Causes of general developmental delays include genetic or chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome; nervous system disorders or infections such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, Rubella syndrome. Even, a history of high-risk infants such as premature babies or fewer months. The other example is low birth weight babies. Infants who experience severe pain at the beginning of their birth so requires intensive and other care.
To find out, you need data/reports or complaints from parents and checks for early detection or developmental screening in children. Developmental screening is important and must be done using the correct developmental screening tool. By diagnosing early, it can be found for the causes of delay, prompt and accurate intervention.
In general, parents should know the signs of danger of child development as listed below. If parents find one of the danger signs below, you should immediately check their baby to the health worker. Although the growth and development of children are different, parents still need to be alert to the signs that children experience developmental delays.
Indications of child development delay
- Delay in the development of the motor function
Fine motor skills are small movements, such as holding toys or other objects. While, gross motor skills are larger movements such as jumping, climbing stairs, or throwing a ball. The ability to grasp objects is one of the physical and mental skills that reflect how nerves work. If the child is still having difficulty grasping and observing objects, then the possibility of muscle development, visual nerve, and motor problems are impaired.
The progress of each child may indeed be at a different level, but most can lift their head at the age of 3 months, sit at the age of 6 months, and can walk before the age of 2 years. At the age of 5 years, most children can throw balls and ride a tricycle.
However, if the child shows some symptoms such as the following, it is very likely that he will experience developmental delays in his fine and gross motor skills:
- The body and legs are weak.
- Stiff arms and legs.
- Can not sit without help when he is 9 months old.
- The unconscious reflex is more dominant than the reflex when you are conscious.
- His feet have difficulty supporting body weight at the age of 1 year.
Generally, children start learning to crawl and learn to stand at the age of 12-18 months. Although there are also babies who have started running smoothly when they are 1 year old. If at the age of 1.5-18 months, the child does not show signs of walking independently, you need to discuss it with a child development expert. If the physical examination is normal, this delay in walking can be caused by inappropriate stimulation to encourage the child to walk alone.
- Delay in the development of language skills or speech
The process of language learning begins when the baby tells him that he is hungry by crying. At the age of 6 months, most babies can recognize sounds and basic languages. At 12-15 months, babies must be able to say a few simple words, even if the pronunciation is still unclear. Most toddlers can understand a few words at the age of 18 months. When it reaches 3 years, most children can speak in short sentences.
Language disorders occur when children have difficulty understanding what others say and cannot express their thoughts. Language includes the ability to communicate or speak, then movements in the form of gestures and writing. Besides, poor hearing can cause this delay, so the doctor will usually do a test that specifically analyzes his sense of hearing.
- Autism spectrum disorders
This neurological development disorder often interferes with the child’s ability to communicate and interact with others. The symptoms may not be very clear at the beginning, but it becomes clearer when the child has reached the age of 2 or 3 years. Some symptoms:
- Do not response properly such as do not reply when someone’s calling.
- Reluctant to participate in an activity that involves many people or requires physical contact / is reluctant to socialize with the surrounding environment
- Facial expressions tend to be stable and very rarely change.
- Difficulty removing words while talking like halting and also having trouble remembering words and sentences.
- Perform repetitive movements or call words repeatedly
- Experiencing coordination problems or difficulty balancing.
Treatment for the late development of a child varies and is adjusted to the type of delay in its development. For example, physical therapy is recommended for children with motoric development delays, then behavioral and educational therapy to help children with autism and others.